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Diese Summenformel wird als der "Der kleine Gauss" bezeichnet. Gauss was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1822.[65]. 2 [b], In connection to this, there is a record of a conversation between Rudolf Wagner and Gauss, in which they discussed William Whewell's book Of the Plurality of Worlds. Die Formel lässt sich folgendermaßen veranschaulichen: Man schreibt die Zahlen von 1 bis {\displaystyle 0,1,3,6,10,\dotsc } Though Gauss had up to that point been financially supported by his stipend from the Duke, he doubted the security of this arrangement, and also did not believe pure mathematics to be important enough to deserve support. [a] This was a major discovery in an important field of mathematics; construction problems had occupied mathematicians since the days of the Ancient Greeks, and the discovery ultimately led Gauss to choose mathematics instead of philology as a career. [31][c] This later led them to discuss the topic of faith, and in some other religious remarks, Gauss said that he had been more influenced by theologians like Lutheran minister Paul Gerhardt than by Moses. Daniel Kehlmann's 2005 novel Die Vermessung der Welt, translated into English as Measuring the World (2006), explores Gauss's life and work through a lens of historical fiction, contrasting them with those of the German explorer Alexander von Humboldt. Published April 1999,October 2009,September 2012,February 2011. Jahrhundert. 2 , Die genaue Aufgabenstellung ist nicht überliefert. To aid the survey, Gauss invented the heliotrope, an instrument that uses a mirror to reflect sunlight over great distances, to measure positions. Gauss also claimed to have discovered the possibility of non-Euclidean geometries but never published it. [5], Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick (Braunschweig), in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (now part of Lower Saxony, Germany), to poor, working-class parents. [6] His mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension (which occurs 39 days after Easter). [42] Gauss was never quite the same without his first wife, and he, just like his father, grew to dominate his children. „Am Ende der Stunde wurden darauf die Rechentafeln umgekehrt; die von Gauss mit einer einzigen Zahl lag oben und als Büttner das Exempel prüfte, wurde das seinige zum Staunen aller Anwesenden als richtig befunden …“. Während nun seine Mitschüler fleißig zu addieren begannen, stellte Gauß fest, dass sich die 100 zu addierenden Zahlen zu 50 Paaren gruppieren lassen, die jeweils die Summe 101 haben: They had an argument over a party Eugene held, for which Gauss refused to pay. Piazzi could track Ceres for only somewhat more than a month, following it for three degrees across the night sky. The ‘Prince of Mathematicians’ is hailed for contributions to number theory, geometry, probability theory and astronomy. der ungeraden Zahlen. n n Toward the end of his life, it brought him confidence. Carl Joseph Gausshist.med.name Gauß-Bonnet-Formel {f} [Satz von Gauß-Bonnet] Gauss-Bonnet formulamath. For other persons or things named Gauss, see, Gauss stated without proof that this condition was also necessary, but never published his proof. München: Verlag Moos & Partner, 1985. Carl Friedrich Gauß entdeckte diese Formel als neunjähriger Schüler wieder. Why educators should appear on-screen for instructional videos; Feb. 3, 2021. ⋅ {\displaystyle {\frac {n\cdot (n+1)}{2}}} zu zeigen. This led in 1828 to an important theorem, the Theorema Egregium (remarkable theorem), establishing an important property of the notion of curvature. {\displaystyle n+1.} Carl Friedrich Gauss is sometimes referred to as the \"Prince of Mathematicians\" and the \"greatest mathematician since antiquity\". Wegen seiner überragenden wissenschaftlichen Leistungen galt er bereits zu seinen Lebzeiten als Princeps Mathematicorum („Fürst der Mathematiker“; „Erster unter den Mathematikern“). Gauss ordered a magnetic observatory to be built in the garden of the observatory, and with Weber founded the "Magnetischer Verein" (magnetic association), which supported measurements of Earth's magnetic field in many regions of the world. Gauss later solved this puzzle about his birthdate in the context of finding the date of Easter, deriving methods to compute the date in both past and future years. [41][42], Gauss had six children. 1246 and 1811, in 1977, the 200th anniversary of his birth. [34] Other religious influences included Wilhelm Braubach, Johann Peter Süssmilch, and the New Testament. n His paper, Theoria Interpolationis Methodo Nova Tractata,[56] was published only posthumously in Volume 3 of his collected works. Scottish-American mathematician and writer Eric Temple Bell said that if Gauss had published all of his discoveries in a timely manner, he would have advanced mathematics by fifty years.[45]. However, he subsequently produced three other proofs, the last one in 1849 being generally rigorous. [54], One such method was the fast Fourier transform. 1. Diese Summenformel wie auch die Summenformel für die ersten Da es [3] Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum[4] (Latin for '"the foremost of mathematicians"') and "the greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science, and is ranked among history's most influential mathematicians. 0 Though he did take in a few students, Gauss was known to dislike teaching. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777 in Brunswick (now it is Western Germany). The Prince of Math (as he is commonly known) made contributions to the fields of Algebra, Geometry, Astronomy and many more. The prime number theorem, conjectured on 31 May, gives a good understanding of how the prime numbers are distributed among the integers. [59] In the history of statistics, this disagreement is called the "priority dispute over the discovery of the method of least squares."[60]. 98 Die Aufgabe war indess kaum ausgesprochen als Gauss die Tafel mit den im niedern Braunschweiger Dialekt gesprochenen Worten auf den Tisch wirft: »Ligget se’.« (Da liegt sie.)“. He is most famous for his groundbreaking work in the fields of algebra, statistics, differential geometry, number theory, electrostatics and optics. At an early age his intellectual abilities attracted the attention of the Duke of Brunswick, who secured his education first at the Collegium Carolinum (1792-1795) in his native city and then at the University of Göttingen … Erst 1976 wurde sie von Eugene Salamin [103] und Richard Brent [36] unabhängig voneinander erneut gefunden, und ist … It appears that Gauss already knew the class number formula in 1801.[51]. The numerous things named in honor of Gauss include: In 1929 the Polish mathematician Marian Rejewski, who helped to solve the German Enigma cipher machine in December 1932, began studying actuarial statistics at Göttingen. Eine Verallgemeinerung auf eine beliebige positive ganze Zahl als Exponenten ist die Faulhabersche Formel. For the entire content of the work ... coincides almost exactly with my own meditations which have occupied my mind for the past thirty or thirty-five years." He discovered a construction of the heptadecagon on 30 March. aufsteigend in eine Zeile. While working for the American Fur Company in the Midwest, he learned the Sioux language. In this work, Whewell had discarded the possibility of existing life in other planets, on the basis of theological arguments, but this was a position with which both Wagner and Gauss disagreed. Mathematicians including Jean le Rond d'Alembert had produced false proofs before him, and Gauss's dissertation contains a critique of d'Alembert's work. Gauss Was Born to Poor, Working-Class Parents & Was a Child Prodigy Who Figured … 01-Siebzehneck-Formel Gauss.svg 739 × 674; 698 KB. Carl Friedrich Gauß signature.svg 847 × 756; 68 KB. blauen Kästchen zu einem Rechteck ergänzt, dessen Halbierung entlang der roten Linie wie gewünscht genau die grünen Kästchen abspaltet. {\displaystyle n} {\displaystyle n} Gauss was a Lutheran Protestant, a member of the St. Albans Evangelical Lutheran church in Göttingen. During an austere childhood in a poor and unlettered family he showed extraordinary precocity. The German scientist and mathematician Gauss is frequently he was called the founder of modern mathematics. A film version directed by Detlev Buck was released in 2012. 1 [71], On 30 April 2018, Google honoured Gauss in his would-be 241st birthday with a Google Doodle showcased in Europe, Russia, Israel, Japan, Taiwan, parts of Southern and Central America and the United States. ", "Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß was called "the prince of mathematics." n n Oft wird berichtet, dass Büttner die Schüler die Zahlen von 1 bis 100 (nach anderen Quellen von 1 bis 60) addieren ließ. In the process, he so streamlined the cumbersome mathematics of 18th-century orbital prediction that his work remains a cornerstone of astronomical computation. [30], Apart from his correspondence, there are not many known details about Gauss's personal creed. On 1 October he published a result on the number of solutions of polynomials with coefficients in finite fields, which 150 years later led to the Weil conjectures. Carl Friedrich Gauß entdeckte diese Formel als neunjähriger Schüler wieder. Print. [72], Carl Friedrich Gauss, who also introduced the so-called Gaussian logarithms, sometimes gets confused with Friedrich Gustav Gauss [de] (1829–1915), a German geologist, who also published some well-known logarithm tables used up into the early 1980s. [52][53], Gauss's method involved determining a conic section in space, given one focus (the Sun) and the conic's intersection with three given lines (lines of sight from the Earth, which is itself moving on an ellipse, to the planet) and given the time it takes the planet to traverse the arcs determined by these lines (from which the lengths of the arcs can be calculated by Kepler's Second Law). , Title: Carl Friedrich Gauss’ Formula in modern math Author: Rachel N. Pollinger Gauss contributed to many areas of learning. Bell, author of Men of Mathematics, while Gauss’s father, Gerhard, was calculating the payroll for some laborers under his charge, little Gauss was … Der kleine Gauss ist eine Figur, angelehnt an den Mathematiker Carl Friedrich Gauß, der mit neun Jahren eine Formel für die Summe der ersten n aufeinanderfolgenden natürlichen Zahlen entdeckte. In his 1799 doctorate in absentia, A new proof of the theorem that every integral rational algebraic function of one variable can be resolved into real factors of the first or second degree, Gauss proved the fundamental theorem of algebra which states that every non-constant single-variable polynomial with complex coefficients has at least one complex root. 1 . , Blog. und. Gauss, Carl Friedrich(b. Brunswick, Germany, 30 April 1777; d. Göttingen, Germany, 23 February 1855)mathematical sciences.The life of Gauss was very simple in external form. [citation needed], Another story has it that in primary school after the young Gauss misbehaved, his teacher, J.G. , Carl Friedrich Gauss; (1777-1855), German mathematician and scientist acknowledged to be one of the three leading mathematicians of all time, the others being Archimedes and Newton. 1 Like many of the great mathematicians, Gauss showed amazing mathematical skill from an … Zach noted that "without the intelligent work and calculations of Doctor Gauss we might not have found Ceres again". + He conceived spiritual life in the whole universe as a great system of law penetrated by eternal truth, and from this source he gained the firm confidence that death does not end all. n [citation needed] The reverse featured the approach for Hanover. Auch ein Beweis der Gaußschen Summenformel mit vollständiger Induktion ist möglich. Gauss was so pleased with this result that he requested that a regular heptadecagon be inscribed on his tombstone. Gauss proved the method under the assumption of normally distributed errors (see Gauss–Markov theorem; see also Gaussian). n aufeinanderfolgenden ungeraden Zahlen, Die Summe der ersten + Gauss remained mentally active into his old age, even while suffering from gout and general unhappiness. , -Gauss almost immediately produced an answer of 5,050. Die einfache Halbierung des Quadrats entlang einer seiner Diagonalen würde die genau auf der Diagonale liegenden Kästchen ebenfalls teilen, was unerwünscht ist. {\displaystyle n}, für alle positiven The British mathematician Henry John Stephen Smith (1826–1883) gave the following appraisal of Gauss: If we except the great name of Newton it is probable that no mathematicians of any age or country have ever surpassed Gauss in the combination of an abundant fertility of invention with an absolute rigorousness in demonstration, which the ancient Greeks themselves might have envied. His friend Farkas Wolfgang Bolyai with whom Gauss had sworn "brotherhood and the banner of truth" as a student, had tried in vain for many years to prove the parallel postulate from Euclid's other axioms of geometry. Gauß-Poisson-Verteilung {f} Gauss-Poisson distributionmath.stat. Germany has also issued three postage stamps honoring Gauss. The year 1796 was productive for both Gauss and number theory. While at university, Gauss independently rediscovered several important theorems. Waldo Dunnington, a biographer of Gauss, argues in Gauss, Titan of Science (1955) that Gauss was in fact in full possession of non-Euclidean geometry long before it was published by Bolyai, but that he refused to publish any of it because of his fear of controversy.[62][63]. {\displaystyle 50+51.} Gauss, Carl Friedrich (1777-1855). [20] Among his results, Gauss showed that under a paraxial approximation an optical system can be characterized by its cardinal points[21] and he derived the Gaussian lens formula. [46] Around that time, the two men engaged in a correspondence. The stonemason declined, stating that the difficult construction would essentially look like a circle.[16]. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855), one of the most prolific mathematicians of all time, displayed a talent for mathematics at an early age. Find out more about this mathematician who even… Carl’s mother was intelligent, but illiterate; she had received no education was a housemaid before marriage. Religion is not a question of literature, but of life. Satz {m} von Gauß Gauss's theoremmath. Among other things, he came up with the notion of Gaussian curvature. [44] Gauss wanted Eugene to become a lawyer, but Eugene wanted to study languages. 10 Gauss was an ardent perfectionist and a hard worker. Gauss also made important contributions to number theory with his 1801 book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin, Arithmetical Investigations), which, among other things, introduced the triple bar symbol ≡ for congruence and used it in a clean presentation of modular arithmetic, contained the first two proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity, developed the theories of binary and ternary quadratic forms, stated the class number problem for them, and showed that a regular heptadecagon (17-sided polygon) can be constructed with straightedge and compass. Gauss's brain was preserved and was studied by Rudolf Wagner, who found its mass to be slightly above average, at 1,492 grams, and the cerebral area equal to 219,588 square millimeters[26] (340.362 square inches). [15] His breakthrough occurred in 1796 when he showed that a regular polygon can be constructed by compass and straightedge if the number of its sides is the product of distinct Fermat primes and a power of 2. Read/Download File Report Abuse. This discovery was a major paradigm shift in mathematics, as it freed mathematicians from the mistaken belief that Euclid's axioms were the only way to make geometry consistent and non-contradictory. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß (latinisiert Carolus Fridericus Gauss; * 30. Abington, United Kingdom: Helicon. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick (Braunschweig), in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (now part of Lower Saxony, Germany), to poor, working-class parents. His personal diaries indicate that he had made several important mathematical discoveries years or decades before his contemporaries published them. [47] However, when they met in person in 1825, they quarrelled; the details are unknown. This problem leads to an equation of the eighth degree, of which one solution, the Earth's orbit, is known. Gauss was a child prodigy. Neben dem oben vorgeführten Beweis der Vorwärts- und Rückwärts-Summation ist noch das folgende allgemeine Prinzip interessant:[3], Um zu beweisen, dass für alle natürlichen He believed that a life worthily spent here on earth is the best, the only, preparation for heaven. [48], Before she died, Sophie Germain was recommended by Gauss to receive an honorary degree; she never received it.[49]. Several months later, when Ceres should have reappeared, Piazzi could not locate it: the mathematical tools of the time were not able to extrapolate a position from such a scant amount of data—three degrees represent less than 1% of the total orbit. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) is recognised as being one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. [41] Gauss plunged into a depression from which he never fully recovered. {\displaystyle n} Later, he moved to Missouri and became a successful businessman. Prepared By : Aditya Kumar Pathak 2. Here's why", "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex Fourier series", "Gauss and the history of the fast fourier transform", "Die Vermessung der Welt (2012) – Internet Movie Database", "Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst: Startseite", "Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß's 241st Birthday", English translation of Waltershausen's 1862 biography, Carl Friedrich Gauss on the 10 Deutsche Mark banknote, List of scientists whose names are used as units, Scientists whose names are used in physical constants, People whose names are used in chemical element names, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carl_Friedrich_Gauss&oldid=1015714693, Technical University of Braunschweig alumni, Corresponding Members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Honorary Members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Members of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art, Members of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class), CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Pages using infobox scientist with unknown parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2007, Articles needing additional references from July 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, developed an algorithm for determining the, This page was last edited on 3 April 2021, at 02:44. Highly developed convolutions were also found, which in the early 20th century were suggested as the explanation of his genius.[27]. His mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension (which occurs 39 days after Easter). The young Gauss reputedly produced the correct answer within seconds, to the astonishment of his teacher and his assistant Martin Bartels. He completed his magnum opus, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, in 1798, at the age of 21—though it was not published until 1801. In The Hutchinson Dictionary of scientific biography. Mackinnon, Nick (1990). Eugene shared a good measure of Gauss's talent in languages and computation. Felix Klein, Vorlesungen über die Entwicklung der Mathematik im 19. {\displaystyle n} After three months of intense work, he predicted a position for Ceres in December 1801—just about a year after its first sighting—and this turned out to be accurate within a half-degree when it was rediscovered by Franz Xaver von Zach on 31 December at Gotha, and one day later by Heinrich Olbers in Bremen. n {\displaystyle n} info), Latin: Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a famous mathematician from Göttingen, Germany. Gauss says more than once that, for brevity, he gives only the synthesis, and suppresses the analysis of his propositions. n Media in category "Carl Friedrich Gauß" The following 41 files are in this category, out of 41 total. Januar 2021 um 15:54 Uhr bearbeitet. 1. n His outstanding work includes the discovery of the method of least squares, the discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, and important contributions to the theory of numbers. Many biographists think that he got his… ⋅ Die Geschichte ist durch Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen überliefert: „Der junge Gauss war kaum in die Rechenclasse eingetreten, als Büttner die Summation einer arithmetischen Reihe aufgab. While this method is attributed to a 1965 paper by James Cooley and John Tukey,[55] Gauss developed it as a trigonometric interpolation method. [7] He was christened and confirmed in a church near the school he attended as a child.[8]. Two religious works which Gauss read frequently were Braubach's Seelenlehre (Giessen, 1843) and Süssmilch's Gottliche (Ordnung gerettet A756); he also devoted considerable time to the New Testament in the original Greek.[35]. Many biographers of Gauss disagree about his religious stance, with Bühler and others considering him a deist with very unorthodox views,[31][32][33] while Dunnington (though admitting that Gauss did not believe literally in all Christian dogmas and that it is unknown what he believed on most doctrinal and confessional questions) points out that he was, at least, a nominal Lutheran. The son left in anger and, in about 1832, emigrated to the United States. + Stephen M. Stigler, "Gauss and the Invention of Least Squares,". Later Wagner explained that he did not fully believe in the Bible, though he confessed that he "envied" those who were able to easily believe. With Johanna (1780–1809), his children were Joseph (1806–1873), Wilhelmina (1808–1846) and Louis (1809–1810). 725) appeared in 1955 on the hundredth anniversary of his death; two others, nos. [18] For example, at the age of 62, he taught himself Russian. aufeinanderfolgenden geraden Zahlen: Die Formel für die Summe der ersten Karl Friedrich Gauss was born in Brunswick on April 30, 1777. [10][11][12] There are many other anecdotes about his precocity while a toddler, and he made his first groundbreaking mathematical discoveries while still a teenager. 100 Born Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss to poor parents, Gauss displayed his prodigious calculating skills before he was even three years old. Sie wurde von dem deutschen Mathematiker Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777–1855) um das Jahr 1800 herum aufgestellt. Gauss also discovered that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most three triangular numbers on 10 July and then jotted down in his diary the note: "ΕΥΡΗΚΑ! Gauss's presumed method was to realize that pairwise addition of terms from opposite ends of the list yielded identical intermediate sums: 1 + 100 = 101, 2 + 99 = 101, 3 + 98 = 101, and so on, for a total sum of 50 × 101 = 5050. Februar 1855 in Göttingen) war ein deutscher Mathematiker, Statistiker, Astronom, Geodät und Physiker. Aus der Gaußschen Summenformel ergeben sich durch Anwenden des Distributivgesetzes und anderer ähnlich elementarer Rechenregeln leicht auch Formeln für die Summe der geraden bzw. This paper predates the first presentation by Joseph Fourier on the subject in 1807.[57]. {\displaystyle n\cdot (n+1)} Sändig Reprint Verlag H. R. Wohlwend. 50 God's revelation is continuous, not contained in tablets of stone or sacred parchment. aufeinanderfolgenden Quadratzahlen. His work is astronomy and physics is nearly as significant as that in mathematics. Various principles which he advocated became an integral part of statistics and his theory of errors remained a major focus of probability theory up to the 1930s. Lemma {n} von Gauß Gauss's lemmamath. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777 in a small German city north of the Harz mountains named Braunschweig. On 8 April he became the first to prove the quadratic reciprocity law. Gauss was born on 30 April, 1777 in Brunswick, Germany, into a humble family and attended a squalid school. Man braucht nun nur mehr die Anzahl ( Gauss usually declined to present the intuition behind his often very elegant proofs—he preferred them to appear "out of thin air" and erased all traces of how he discovered them. He then married Minna Waldeck (1788–1831)[41][42] on 4 August 1810,[41] and had three more children. For Gauss, not he who mumbles his creed, but he who lives it, is accepted. [9] Many versions of this story have been retold since that time with various details regarding what the series was – the most frequent being the classical problem of adding all the integers from 1 to 100. When I have clarified and exhausted a subject, then I turn away from it, in order to go into darkness again. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss is one of the most influential mathematicians in history. Marko Petkovsek, Herbert Wilf, Doron Zeilberger: Beweis der Gaußschen Summenformel mit vollständiger Induktion, Wikibooks: Mathe für Nicht-Freaks: Gaußsche Summenformel, Herleitung der gaußschen Summenformel auf zwei Arten einfach erklärt, Geometrischer Beweis der gaußschen Summenformel, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gaußsche_Summenformel&oldid=208015845, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. Thus he sought a position in astronomy, and in 1807 was appointed Professor of Astronomy and Director of the astronomical observatory in Göttingen, a post he held for the remainder of his life. A book is inspired when it inspires. That is, curvature does not depend on how the surface might be embedded in 3-dimensional space or 2-dimensional space. I imagine the world conqueror must feel thus, who, after one kingdom is scarcely conquered, stretches out his arms for others.[50]. Danach ruhte die Formel im Verborgenen. In 1821, he was made a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. , ) n Research on these geometries led to, among other things, Einstein's theory of general relativity, which describes the universe as non-Euclidean. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on April 30, 1777 in the city of Brunswick, Germany. [36] He was quoted stating: "The world would be nonsense, the whole creation an absurdity without immortality,"[37] and for this statement he was severely criticized by the atheist Eugen Dühring who judged him as a narrow superstitious man.

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